Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start writing!
Compare and contrast use of NHS policy and guidelines and their impact on clinical decision making to those in the country(Saudi Arabia) in which you practice, and critically comment on these.
Consider if local clinical guidelines and policies exist and if so, are they implemented? If not, identify factors that might explain this based on your own clinical experience.
1. Compare and contrast use of NHS policy and guidelines and their impact on clinical decision making to those in the country(Saudi Arabia) in which you practice, and critically comment on these. Consider if local clinical guidelines and policies exist and if so, are they implemented? If not, identify factors that might explain this based on your own clinical experience.
there is no policy and clinical guideine in Saudi Arabia.
but you can compare it to american policy and guideline if you want.
write it as a pharmacist.
number of source will be at least one (if the policy and guidline at the same file) or at least two(if the policy and guidline are at different file or site), in case of saying that there is no policy in saudi Arabia.
if you compare it to USA policy ( by saing that there are no policy in Saudi Arabia but the are using USA policy ) i would expect more references
Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring
Objectives: Evaluate nursing theories in relation to practice, research, education or administration.
Your answer should be in APA format. I would like you to follow the format below when answering the questions for the next four discussion assignments.
Within your group, decide what Middle Range Theories (Ch. 25- Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring) in the readings you will become the expert on. Each group member should choose a different theory. How you decide that is up to your group.
Start your answer by providing a brief overview of the theory. Summarize the readings in your words.
Then discuss what you think the theory actually means and how you see the theory being utilized in actual practice (or if you don’t think it can be then explain why).
Provide a very brief nursing situation and how the theory or an aspect of the theory can be useful in the situation (do not use the scenarios used in the book).
Conclude with what you think about the theory and its usefulness to nursing. Please do not be afraid to say what you really think. If you think the theory is “BS” then say that. If you think the theory is really great then tell us why.
Note: To me like that every paragraph has bounded the literature used, and that meets the requirements of APA
Consider the clinical tools or process changes that would need to take place. Provide a resource list.
In 1,000-1,500 words, provide a description of the methods to be used to implement the proposed solution. Include the following:
1. Describe the setting and access to potential subjects. If there is a need for a consent or approval form, then one must be created. Although you will not be submitting the consent or approval forms in Topic 5 with the narrative, you will include the consent or approval forms in the appendices for the final paper.
2. Describe the amount of time needed to complete this project. Create a timeline. Make sure the timeline is general enough that it can be implemented at any date. Although you will not be submitting the timeline in Topic 5 with the narrative, you will include the timeline in the appendices for the final paper.
3. Describe the resources (human, fiscal, and other) or changes needed in the implementation of the solution. Consider the clinical tools or process changes that would need to take place. Provide a resource list. Although you will not be submitting the resource list in Topic 5 with the narrative, you will include the resource list in the appendices for the final paper.
4. Describe the methods and instruments, such as a questionnaire, scale, or test to be used for monitoring the implementation of the proposed solution. Develop the instruments. Although you will not be submitting the individual instruments in Topic 5 with the narrative, you will include the instruments in the appendices for the final paper.
5. Explain the process for delivering the (intervention) solution and indicate if any training will be needed.
6. Provide an outline of the data collection plan. Describe how data management will be maintained and by whom. Furthermore, provide an explanation of how the data analysis and interpretation process will be conducted. Develop the data collection tools that will be needed. Although you will not be submitting the data collection tools in Topic 5 with the narrative, you will include the data collection tools in the appendices for the final paper.
7. Describe the strategies to deal with the management of any barriers, facilitators, and challenges.
8. Establish the feasibility of the implementation plan. Address the costs for personnel, consumable supplies, equipment (if not provided by the institute), computer-related costs (librarian consultation, database access, etc.), and other costs (travel, presentation development). Make sure to provide a brief rationale for each. Develop a budget plan. Although you will not be submitting the budget plan in Topic 5 with the narrative, you will include the budget plan in the appendices for the final paper.
9. Describe the plans to maintain, extend, revise, and discontinue a proposed solution after implementation.
You are required to cite five to 10 sources to complete this assignment
Compare and contrast the ANA or ICN Code of ethics for Nurses Practice Act
How does each one guide the nursing practice.Compare and contrast the ANA or ICN Code of ethics for Nurses Practice Act.
Provide examples to get your point across.
This report discusses the concept of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the links between healthcare and politics, the different types of health systems adopted by the nations of the European Union (EU) and the responses by the European states to the recent global economic crisis. Further, the paper emphasizes the importance of strategic planning for healthcare organizations. Having considered the views and opinions expressed in the referenced papers and publications, the report closes with recommendations for ways to improve the current approaches to the provision of healthcare.
Following some discussion of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), this report explores the links between politics and the policies and planning of healthcare, in democratic societies. In many cases, politics are inextricably and irrevocably linked to healthcare provision and organization. The effects of those links are discussed. The report principally covers U.S. healthcare, but for a broader perspective, European Union aspects are also included.
An important objective in any caring society is universal health coverage for all citizens; i.e. “to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.” (“What is universal health coverage?” 2012). To achieve that objective, a country needs to have an efficient, affordable and robust system of healthcare, well-staffed by qualified personnel, and whose importance is recognized by all sectors of the administration (“What is universal health coverage?” 2012).
To indicate its importance, the following statement was made by the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO): “Universal Health Coverage is the single most powerful concept that public health has to offer” (“Universal Health Coverage” 2012).
The influence of politics on the commitment to UHC is emphasized in a paper entitled “The political economy of universal health coverage” (Stuckler et al, 2010). The authors state that “Adopting UHC is primarily a political, rather than a technical issue” (Stuckler et al, 2010 p.2). Further, the authors believe that analysis suggests that increasing the share of GDP assigned for public health expenditure is associated with high political commitment, higher taxes, and a high level of democracy. Typically, expanded healthcare coverage sits alongside “increasing social welfare programmes” (Stuckler et al, 2010 pp.2-3).
That view of UHC being largely a political issue is echoed by the following statement in a Chatham House report: “Universal health coverage (UHC) – the idea that all people should receive the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them − is intrinsically political” (Heymann 2014). It involves financial support by those who are better off to subsidize others who are “sick and poor” (Heymann 2014). That implies the need for the state to establish an affordable and equitable healthcare financing system, requiring political agreement between the various interest groups involved. Issues that have to be resolved to reach that agreement include how the system will be financed. According to Heymann, “Politicians increasingly recognize that UHC reforms can win votes and therefore bring them political benefits” and that UHC reforms and initiatives are frequently introduced by politicians just prior to elections or immediately on gaining power.
Another Chatham House report makes a series of key recommendations concerning the financing of health. Those include a government commitment of an expenditure on health of at least five percent of GDP, and introducing various measures to strive towards a situation of full UHC as soon as possible (“Shared Responsibilities for Health: A Coherent Global Framework for Health Financing.” 2014 pp.1-3).
Inevitably, decisions made by those who dictate health policies are influenced by underlying political considerations and constraints. Therefore, in order to understand health policy, it is necessary to have an appreciation of the political factors such as “partisanship, voters’ views, public opinion, political ideology, values and belief systems, the power of entrenched interest groups, and the nature of media coverage, along with constitutional requirements and institutional arrangements” (Patel & Rushefsky 2014 p.3). That view is echoed by the title of a Fox Business News article, which is: “Politics, Not Policy, Steers Health-Care Spending Debate.” (Prial 2013).
In the wake of the controversy surrounding President Obama’s Affordable Care Act, the US State of Vermont has implemented an independent solution. In 2011, that state signed into law the Green Mountain Healthcare plan, the outcome of “decades of work by progressive politicians in the state.” (McElwee 2013). The key feature of the Vermont plan is that employers will no longer be the providers of health insurance. The plan “aims to guarantee universal insurance coverage, improve benefits for those who are currently underinsured, include universal dental care and vision care, and increase the Medicaid reimbursement rate to doctors in order to avoid
.” (McElwee 2013). The plan is expected to produce healthcare savings for the state of circa $4.6 billion in the first five years. Those savings would be reinvested in healthcare, including covering the health costs of the uninsured, and expanding the range of services and increasing benefits. (McElwee 2013).
A claimed adverse effect of political influence in healthcare is cited by Hyman (2012), who states that because a recent Supreme Court decision permits unlimited political campaign contributions from corporations, the nation’s health is adversely affected. His reasoning is that as a result “money rules politics” (Hyman 2012), meaning that consumers are not protected from GM and processed foods, or from the aggressive marketing of poor quality foods loaded with sugar. Furthermore, because policies and legislation are influenced by the money, medical research focuses on the most profitable avenues, not the best or the most needed medicines and treatments (Hyman 2012).
A related situation reported by Wright (2014) occurred in the United Kingdom. According to his article in the
(UK newspaper), Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) permitted a drugs industry lobbying business to draft a report that might help guide future health policy.
The author of an article linking political influence with the organization and functionality of health systems in the European Union (EU) discusses three different approaches with regard to politically ideological involvement in a nation’s healthcare. The first is the
approach, whereby the government is concerned only with compliance with and enforcement of the law. This results in free market acting only on supply and demand. Then there is the
approach, in which state intervention is admissible – usually applicable for countries with a national healthcare system, or one with health insurance agencies under state control. The third approach is the
approach, in which state intervention to any extent is implicit. Characteristics of this approach can include centralization of all the planning and acquisition and provision of resources (BuÅŸoi 2010 p.4).
BuÅŸoi describes two healthcare organization systems which between them have been used as models for the majority of the European nations. Great Britain uses the
system, in which parliament-controlled healthcare is available to all without prior payment and is funded by taxes. The second system model – as utilized in Germany and the Benelux countries – is the
system, named after its creator. In this system, contributions are paid through employment. It is not state-managed, but instead is controlled by the trades unions, who negotiate costs with the medical professionals. Healthcare is based on contracts between individual contributors and Health Insurance companies (BuÅŸoi 2010 pp.4-5).
This is the title of a policy summary published by the World Health Organization (WHO), which discusses the responses of policy makers in various European countries to the global economic crisis which began in 2007, affecting healthcare resources availability. The authors note that consequent cuts in health spending present challenges to health system policy-makers, including unexpected interruptions to revenue sources, making planning difficult. Further, that those cuts are likely to occur just when increases in resources are required, and may cause instabilities in the health system (Mladovsky et al. 2012 p.v). A survey of the European responses to the economic crisis showed a wide variation – to some extent dependent on the overall impact of the crisis in each country (Mladovsky et al. 2012 p.vi). Overall, the authors consider that an opportunity to enhance the health system values through improvement policies has been missed (Mladovsky et al. 2012 p.vii).
Strategic planning in healthcare organizations is important for operational success and profitability. A “trial and error” approach is a recipe for disaster, especially when health reforms and other changes alter the environment in which the organization is functioning. For any strategic plan, conducting a feasibility study before implementing the plan is a necessary step in the planning process (Fuchs 2012). Similar sentiments are expressed by Varkey and Bennet (2010). Furthermore, strategic planning is a “valid and useful tool for guiding all types of organizations, including healthcare organizations” Perera and Peiro (2012).
The healthcare systems covered in this report vary in structure and organization, although most strive towards the ideal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Healthcare reforms attempt to improve the delivery of healthcare, often in an environment of budgetary cuts. Links with politics appear to exist everywhere, often to the detriment of the consumers.
It seems clear from the research undertaken for this report that the political influence over healthcare systems and provision is unlikely to be a positive factor. It is therefore recommended that healthcare policy should be independent of government, leaving strategies and policies to be determined by healthcare professionals.
BuÅŸoi, Cristian, Silviu. (Jun. 2010). “Health Systems and the Influence of Political Ideologies.”
Management in Health XIV/2/2010; pp.4-6
. Retrieved from:
Fuchs, Gunter, G. (Oct. 2012). “Strategic Planninjg in Healthcare . . . why it matters so much.” The Fox Group, LLC. Retrieved from:
Heymann, David, L. (2014). “Embracing the Politics of Universal Health Coverage.”
Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Hyman, Mark. (2012). “Money, Politics and Health Care: A Disease-Creation Economy.”
The Huffington Post.
McElwee, Sean. (Dec. 2013). “Can Vermont’s Single-Payer System Fix What Ails American Healthcare?”
The Atlantic Monthly Group.
Mladovsky, Philipa, Srivastava, Divya, Cylus, Jonathan, Karanikolos, Marina, Evetovits, Tamás, Thomson, Sarah, & McKee, Martin. (Aug. 2012). “Health Policy Responses to the Financial Crisis in Europe.”
World Health Organization (WHO) (Europe).
Patel, Kant & Rushefsky, Mark, E. (Apr. 2014).
Healthcare Politics and Policy in America (4
New York, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
Perera, Francisco, de Paula, Rodriguez, & Peiro, Manel. (Aug. 2012). “Strategic Planning in Healthcare Organizations.”
Revista Española de Cardiologia.
Prial, Dunstan. (Mar. 2013). “Politics, Not Policy, Steers Health-Care Spending Debate.”
“Shared Responsibilities for Health: A Coherent Global Framework for Health Financing.” (May 2014).
Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Stuckler, David, Feigl, Andrea, B., Basu, Sanjay, & McKee, Martin. (2010). “The political economy of universal health coverage.”
Health Systems Research.
“Universal Health Coverage.” (2012).
Varkey, Prathibha & Bennet, Kevin, E. (Apr. 2010). “Practical Techniques for Strategic Planning in Health Care Organizations.”
American College of Physician Executives.
“What is universal health coverage?” (2012).
World Health Organization.
Wright, Oliver. (Feb. 2014). “Revealed: Big Pharma’s hidden links to NHS policy, with senior MPs saying medical industry uses ‘wealth to influence government’.”
I need this assignment in 48 hours
1. Do you think that pop culture will survive as it is, or will it morph into something different? Provide examples
Describe how this ethical issue impacts patients, families, society, law, and economics. Describe the role of the nurse in the decision making process regarding the ethical issue. Describe any conflicts/concerns, legal and ethical responsibilities (what standards apply).
Choose an ethical issue related to nursing. consider general areas technology, education, research, economics, and
legal issues for topic ideas. APA format 6th ed. and include headings level 1 and 2, 12font, roman times, double
spaced, running head. References other than text required (ethics and issues in contemporary nursing). Be aware of
the validity and reliability of sources used especially internet. Include introduction of issue, relevant
history/landmark events/rulings to give clear picture viewed in society. Discuss why its an ethical dilemma for
you, including ethical principles involved or conflicting, relevant values hold, ethical theory your ascribing to,
fallacies of reasoning that might interfere in your ethical decision making process related to this issue.
Describe how this ethical issue impacts patients, families, society, law, and economics. Describe the role of the
nurse in the decision making process regarding the ethical issue. Describe any conflicts/concerns, legal and
ethical responsibilities (what standards apply). Discuss actual or potential resolution of the issue with
attention to how it involves/affects the nurse, patient, family, society, the law and economics. Provide a
conclusion. There should be 5-8 pages of text.
Describe the nature of your proposed project topic
In a composition of no more than 750 words, describe the nature of your proposed project topic. Include the following in your discussion:
The setting or context in which the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need can be observed. (hospital)
A description providing a high level of detail regarding the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need.
Impact of the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need on the work environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient outcomes.
Significance of the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need and its implications to nursing.
What is the total County budget Breakout the budget for the enterprise funds versus the general fund.
The CAFR for the County of San Diego
Part 1 – Budget analysis
1. In your paper, provide answers to the following questions using visual as well as text. Provide the discussion and analysis as if you were presenting a report to Council:
a. What major concerns are addressed in the budget document
b. What is the total County budget Breakout the budget for the enterprise funds versus the general fund.
c. What sources of revenue are received by the County overall
2. Look at the General fund budget overall. Compare revenues and expenditures budgeted.
a. Determine which Department consumes the most general government resources (support your selection). For that department, answer these questions:
i. What are the department’s goals and purpose How do those match with what you would think the citizens expect
ii. Are there revenues specific to the department
iii. What are the budgeted expenditures Provide examples from the budget.
iv. If a 15% decrease is to be made for this department you have chosen where would you cut the budget Explain why and what you think the overall effect of this decrease would be on the department.
v. Anything else you think is significant about this department’s budget
Part 2 – CAFR analysis
1. Read the Transmittal Letter, MD&A and notes. For additional reference, look for official reports or financial information such as reports to Council about the CAFR.
2. Provide an analysis of the CAFR using text and graphics as if you were presenting your analysis to someone in order to inform them about CAFRs in general and this city in particular.
3. Include in your analysis the answers to the following questions. Be sure to also conform to the guidelines for the paper overall presented in the first section of these instructions and support your opinions with references or examples.
a. Has the County received an award for the CAFR If so, you don’t need to spend time analyzing conformity with GASB 34 requirements.
b. What detail is available in the notes to the statements that would be useful to a particular type of reader (citizen, potential commercial operation, etc.).
c. What is the financial situation for this government Support your comments with examples from the CAFR. Is there sufficient information to determine the financial health of the government
d. Compare the information provided in the CAFR and the budget for this city including a review of the budget vs. actual statements in the CAFR.
e. What do you think was especially helpful or not in the CAFR overall including the MD&A and statistical sections Support your responses with examples.
Tell the reader what you will cover and why it is interesting; give the reader context (for instance, say something about the city such as its location, weather, what it’s known for, etc..
Body – Organization
Essay (any type)
Book / Movie Review
Editing and Proofreading
Critical Thinking / Review
Thesis / Dissertation
Presentation or Speech
3824 Willow Pass, Concord ca89